Vaccine Safety Conference: Evaluating the Science January 3-9 2010 Tryall Club West Indies Jamaica

Vaccine Safety Conference: Evaluating the Science January 3-9 2010 Tryall Club West Indies Jamaica
Home Speakers Presentations Mission Contact Us


  • David Ayoub

  • No resources available at this time

  • Russell Blaylock

  • 1. Luigi Franchi and Gabriel Núñez The NLRP3 Inflammasome is Critical for Alum-Mediated IL-1β Secretion but Dispensable for Adjuvant Activity Eur J Immunol. 2008 August ; 38(8): 2085–2089. doi:10.1002/eji.200838549.

    2. Fiona A. Sharpa, Darren Ruanea, Benjamin Claassa, et al. Uptake of particulate vaccine adjuvants by dendritic cells activates the NALP3 inflammasome. PNAS 106: 870-875.

    3. Stephanie C. Eisenbarth, Oscar R. et al. Crucial role for the Nalp3 inflammasome in the immunostimulatory properties of aluminium adjuvants. Nature 2008; doi: 10.1038/06939.

    4. Kempuraj D, et al. Mercury induces inflammatory mediatory release from human mast cells. J Neuroinflammation 2010; 7:20.

    5. Mackenzie IA. Activated microglia in dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurology. 2000;55:132-134.

    6. Simmons RD, Willenborg DO. Direct injection of cytokines into the spinal cord causes autoimmune encephalomyelitislike inflammation. J Neurol Sci.1990;100:37-42.

    7. Turowski RC, Triozzi PL. Central nervous system toxicities of cytokine therapy. In: Plotnikoff NP, Faith RE, Murgo AJ, Good RA, eds. Cytokines Stress and Immunity. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1998:93-114.
    8. Turowski RC, Triozzi PL. Central nervous system toxicities of cytokine therapy. In: Plotnikoff NP, Faith RE, Murgo AJ, Good RA, eds. Cytokines Stress and Immunity. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1998:93-114.

    9. Santramaria A, Galvan-Arzate S, Lisy V, et al. Quinolinic acid induces oxidative stress in rat brain synaptosomes. Neuroreport. 2001;12: 871-874.

    10. Eastman CL, Urbanska E, Love A, Kristenssin K, Schwarcz R. Increased brain quinolinic acid production in mice infected with a hamster neurotropic measles virus. Exp Neurol.1994;125:119-124.

    11. Vezzani A, Forloni GL, Serafini R, Rizzi M, Samanin R. Neurodegenerative effects induced by chronic infusion of quinolinic acid in rat striatum and hippocampus. Eur J Neurosci.1991;3:40-46.

    12. Jyonouchi H, Sun S, Le H. Proinflammatory and regulatory cytokine production associated with innate and adaptive immune responses in children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental regression. J Neuroimmun.2001;20 (1-2):170-179.

    13. Munoz-Fernandez MA, Fresco M. The role of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, interferon-gamma and inducible nitric oxide synthease in the development and pathology of the nervous system. Prog Neurobiol.1998;56:307-340.

    14. Kim WG, Mohney RP, Wilson B, Jeohn GH, Liu B, Hong JS. Regional difference in susceptibility to lipopolysaccharide-induced neurotoxicity in the rat brain: role of microglia. J Neurosci.2000;20:6309-6316. 15. Arimoto T, Bing G. Up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthease in the substantia nigra by lipopolyosaccharide causes microglial activation and neurodegeneration. Neurobiol Dis.2003;12:35-45.

    16. Gao H-M, Hong J-S, Zhang W, Liu B. Distinct role for microglia in rotenone-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. J Neurosci.2002;22:782-790.

    17. Keller JN, Mark RJ, Bruce E, et al. 4-hydroxynonenal, an aldehydic product of membrane lipid peroxidation, impairs glutamate transport and mitochondrial function in synaptosomes. Neurosci.1997;80:685-696.

    18. Olney JW. New insights and new issues in developmental neurotoxicology. Neurotoxicol.2002;23:659-668.

    19. Diedier M, Bursztajan S, Adamec E, Passani L, Nixon RA, Coyle JT, Wei JY. DNA strand breaks induced by sustained glutamate excitotoxicity in primary neuronal cultures. J Neurosci.1996;16:2239-2250.

    20. Dyatlov VA, Lawrence DA. Neonatal lead exposure potentiates sickness behavior induced by Listeria monocytogenes infection of mice. Brain Behav Immun. 2002; 16:477-492.

    21. Eriksson PS. Glial glutamate transporters. In: Hansson E, Olsson T, Ronnback L, eds. On Astrocytes and Glutamate Neurotransmission: New Waves in Brain Information Processing. Austin, Texas: Chapmen & Hall; 1997:93-103.

    22. Aschner M, Yao CP, Allen JW, Tan KH. Methylmercury alters glutamate transport in astrocytes. Neurochem Int. 2000; 37:199-206.

    23. Hardin-Pouzet H, Krakowski M, Bourbonniere L, Didier- Bazes M, Tran E, Owens T. Glutamate metabolism is downregulated in astrocytes during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Glia 1997; 20:79-85.

    24. Fatemi SH, Halt AR, Stary JM, Kanodia R, Schulz SC, Realmuto GR. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 kDa proteins are reduced in autistic parietal and cerebellar cortices. Biol Psychiatry. 2002:52:805-810.

    25. Eastman CL, Urbanska E, Love A, Kristensson K, Schwarcz R. Increased brain quinolinic acid production in mice infected with a hamster neurotropic measles virus. Exp Neurol.1994;125:119- 124.

    26. Nakai Y, Itoh M, Mizuguchi M, et al. Apoptosis and microglial activation in influenza encephalopathy. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 2003;105:233-239.

    27. Andersson T, Schultzberg M, Schwarcz R, Love A, Wickman C, Kristensson K. NMDA-receptor antagonist prevents measles virus-induced neurodegeneration. Eur J Neurosci.1991:3:66-71.

    28. Stastny F, Skultyova I, Pliss L, Jezova D. Quinolinic acid enhances permeability of rat brain microvessels to plasma albumin. Brain Res Bull. 2000;53:415-420.

    29. Zuccarello M, Anderson DK. Interaction between free-radicals and excitatory amino acids in the blood-brain barrier disruption after iron injury in the rat. J Neurotrauma.1993;10:397-403. 30. Dubovicky M, Tokarev D, Skultetyova I, Jezova D. Changes of exploratory behavior and its habituation in rats neonatally treated with monosodium glutamate. Pharmacol Biochem Behavior.1997;56:565-569.

    31. Hsieh Y-L, Hsu C, Lue S-I, et al. The neonatal neurotoxicity of monosodium L-glutamate in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in rats. Dev Neurosci.1997;19:342-347.

    32. Sebire G, Emile D, Wallon C, et al. In vitro production of IL-6, IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by human embryonic microglial and neural cells. J Immunol.1993;150:1517-1523.

    33. Malek-Ahmadi. Cytokines and etiopathogenesis of pervasive developmental disorders. Med Hypotheses. 2001;56:321-324.

    34. Poutiainen E, Hokkanen L, Niemi M-L, Forkkil M. Reversible cognitive decline during high-dose alpha-interferon treatment. Pharmacol Biochem Behav.1994; 47:901-905.

    35. Turowski RC, Triozzi PL. Central nervous system toxicities of cytokine therapy, In: Plotnikoff NP, Faith RE, Murgo AJ, Good RA, eds. Cytokines Stress and Immunity. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1999:93-114.

    36. Meyers CA, Scheiel RS, Forman AD. Persistant neurotoxicity of systemically administered interferon-alpha. Neurology.1991:41:672- 676.

    37. Hu S, Sheng WS, Ehrlich LC, Peterson PK, Chao CC. Cytokine effects on glutamate uptake by human astrocytes. Neuroimmunomod. 2000;7:153-159.

    38. Fine C, Lumsden J, Blair RJR. Dissociation between “theory of mind” and executive functions in a patient with early left amygdala damage. Brain. 2001:124:287-298.

    39. Gallagher M, Holland PC. The amygdala complex: multiple roles in associative learning and attention. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1994;91:11771-11776.

    40. Day HE, Curran EJ, Watson SJ, Akil H. Distinct neurochemical populations in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis: evidence for their selective activation by interleukin-1beta. J Comp Neurol.1999; 413:113-128.

    41. Baron-Cohen S, Ring HA, Bullmore ET, Wheelwright S, Ashwin C, Williams SC. The amygdala theory of autism [review]. Neurosci Biobehav Rev.2000; 24:355-364.

    42. . Baron-Cohen S, Ring H, Moroarty J, Schmitz B, Costa D, Ell P. Recognition of mental state terms. Clinical findings in children with autism and functional neuroimagining study of normal adults. Br J Psych.1994;165:640-649.

    43. Bachevalier J. Medial temporal lobe structures and autism: a review of clinical and experimental findings. Neuropsychologia.1994;32:627-648.

    44. Haznedar MM, Buchsbaum MS, Wei TC, Hof PR, Cartwright C, Hollander E. Limbic circuitry in patients with autism spectrum disorders with positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Psychiatry. 2000; 157:1994-2001.

    45. Pierce K, Courchesne E. Evidence for a cerebellar role in reduced exploration and stereotyped behavior in autism. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49:655-664.

    45. Warren RP, Singh VK. Elevated serotonin levels in autism: association with the major histocompatibility complex. Neuropsychobiol.1996;34:72-75.

    46. Ozonoff S, Pennington BF, Rogers SJ. Executive function deficits in high-functioning autistic individuals: relationship to theory of mind. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1991;32:1081-1105.

    47. Aylward EH, Minshew NJ, Goldstein G, Honeycutt NA, et al MRI volumes of amygdala and hippocampus in non-mentally retarded autistic adolescents and adults. Neurology. 1999;53:2145-2150.

    48. Kemper TL, Bauman M. Neuropathology of infantile autism. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol.1998;57:645-652.

    49. Neumann H, Schweigreiter R, Yamashita T, Rosenkranz K, Wekerle H, Barde Y-A. Tumor necrosis factor inhibits neurite outgrowth and branching of hippocampal neurons by a rhodependent mechanism. J Neurosci.2002;22:854-862.

    50. Gonzalez-Burgos I, Perez-Vega MI, Beas-Zarate C. Neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate induces cell death and dendritic hypotrophy in rat prefrontocortical pyramidal neurons. Neurosci Lett.2001;297:69-72.

    51. Katayama Y, Hotta H, Nishimura A, Tatsuno Y, Homma M. Detection of measles virus nucleoprotein mRNA in autopsied brain tissues. J Gen Virol.1995;76:3201-3204.

    52. Adamson DC, Kopnisky KL, Dawson TM, Dawson VL. Mechanisms and structural determinants of HIV-1 coat protein, gp41-induced neurotoxicity. J Neurosci.1999;19:64-71.

    53. Arai K, Matsuki N, Ikegaya Y, Nishiyama N. Deterioration of spatial learning performances in lipopolysacchride-treated mice. Jpn J Pharmacol.2001;87: 195-201.

    54. Broderick PA. Interleukin 1 alpha alters hippocampal serotonin and norepinephrine release during open-field behavior in Sprague-Dawley animals: differences from the Fawn-Hooded animal model of depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002;26:1355-1372.

    55. Beas-Zarate C, Riverera-Huizar SV, Martinez-Contreras A, Feria-Velasco A, Armendariz-Borunda J. Changes in NMDA receptor gene expression are associated with neurotoxicity induced neonatally by glutamate in the rat brain. Neurochem Int.2001;39:1-10.

    56. Lellouch-Tubiana A, Fohlen M, Robain O, Rozenberg F. Immunocytochemical characterization of long-term persistant immune activation in human brain after herpes simplex encephalitis. Neuropath Appl Neurobiol 2000; 26:285-294.

    57. Anderson T, Schultzberg M, Schwartz R, Love A, Wickman C, Kristensson K. NMDA-receptor antagonist prevents measles virus-induced neurodegeneration. Eur J Neurosci.1991;3:66-71.

    58. Booss J, Davis LE. Smallpox and smallpox vaccination: neurological implications. Neurology. 2003;60:1241-1245.

    59. Kimura T, Griffin DE. Extensive immune-mediated hippocampal damage in mice surviving infection with neuroadapted Sindbis virus. Virol. 2003;311:28-39.

    60. Sauder C, de la Torre JC. Cytokine expression in the rat central nervous system following perinatal Borna disease virus infection. J Neuroimmunol.1999; 96:29-45.

    61. Perry VH. Persistent pathogens in the parenchyma of the brain. J Neurovirol. 2000;6:(suppl):S86-S89.

    62. Weglicki WB, Phillips TM, et al. Magnesium deficiency elevates circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines and endothelin. Mol Cell Biochem.1992;110: 169-173.

    63. Jong AY, Stins MF, Huang SH, et al. Traversal of Candida albicans across human blood-brain barrier in vitro. Infect Immun 2001;69:4536-4544.

    64. Perry VH, Newman TA, Cunningham C. The impact of systemic infection on the progression of neurodegenerative disease. Nature Res. 2003;4:103-112.

    65. Shel L. Autistic disorder and the endogenous opioid system. Med Hypotheses. 1997; 48:413-414.

    66. Zhu L, Gao J, Wu J, Zhao XN, Zhang ZN. Enhancing effects of beta-endorphin on glutamate neurotoxicity. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao.1998;19:108-111.

    67. Volta U, DeGiorgio R, Petrolini N, Stangbellini V, Barbara G, Granito A, De Ponti F, Corinaldesi R, Bianchi FB. Clinical findings and anti-neuronal antibodies in coelic disease with neurological findings. Scand J Gastroenterol.2002;37:1276-1281.

    68. Kinney HC, Burger PC, Hurwitz BJ, Hijmans JC, Grant JP. Degeneration of the central nervous system associated with celiac disease. J Neurol Sci.1982;53:9-22.

    69. Blaylock RL. The central role of excitotoxicity in autism spectrum disorders. JANA. 2003;6:7-19. 70. Donnelly S, Loscher CE, Lynch MA, Mills KH. Whole-cell but not acellular pertussis vaccines induce convulsive activity in mice: evidence of a role for toxin-induced interleukin- 1beta in a new murine model for analysis of neuronal side effects of vaccination. Infect Immunol.2001;69:4217-4223.

    71. Singh VK, Lin SX, Yang VC. Serological association of measles virus and human herpes virus-6 with brain autoantibodies in autism. Clin Immunol Immunopathol.1998; 89:105-108.

    72. el-Fawal HA e al. Exposure to methylmercury results in serum autoantibodies to neurotypic and gliaotypic proteins. Neurotoxicology 1996; 17:531–9.

    73. Havarinasab S et al. Immunosuppressive and autoimmune effects of thimerosal in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2005;204:109–21.

    74. Hornig M, Chian D, Lipkin WJ. Neurotoxic effect of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent. Mol Psychiatry 2004;9:833–45.

    75. Tishler M, Shoenfeld Y. Vaccination may be associated with autoimmune disease. Isr Med Assoc J 2004;6:430–2.

    76. Lucarelli S et al. Food allergy and infantile autism. Panminerva Med 1995;37:137–41.

    77. Vojdani A et al. Immune response to dietary proteins, gliadin and cerebellar peptides in children with autism. Nutr Neuroscience 2004; 7: 151-161.

    78. McGeer PL and McGeer EG. Autotoxicity and Alzheimer Disease. 2000; 57;289–90.

    79. Lee SC et al. Cytokine production by human fetal microglia and astrocytes. Differential induction by liposaccharide and IL-1beta. J Immunol 1993;150:2659–67.

    80. Boulanger LM, Shatz CJ. Immune signaling in neural development, synaptic plasticity and disease. Nature Reviews/Neuroscience 2004;5:521–31 81. Agrawal A et al. Thimerosal induces TH2 responses via influencing cytokine secretion by human dendritic cells. J Leukocyte Biol 2007;81:1–9.

    82. Martin OC et al. Hepatitis B immunization induces higher antibody and memory Th2 responses in newborns than adults. Vaccine 2004;22:511– 9.

    83. Jyonouchi H et al. Proinflammatory and regulatory cytokine production associated with innate and adaptive immune responses in children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental regression. J Neuroimmunol 2001;120:170–9.

    84. Kerdile YM et al. Immunosuppression by measles virus: role of viral proteins. Rev Med Virol 2006;16:49–63.

    85. Miller NZ. Vaccine Safety Manuel: For Concerned Families and Health Practioners. New Atlantean Press, NM, 2008.

    86. Strunecka A, Patocka J, Blaylock RL et al. Fluoride interactions: from molecules to disease. Current Signal Transduction Therapy 2007; 2(3):190–213.

    87. Block ML, Zecca L, Hong J-S. Microglia-mediated neurotoxicity: uncovering the molecular mechanisms. Nature Reviews/Neuroscience 2007 Sept.;8:57–69.

    88. Lemstra AW et al. Microglia activation in sepsis: a case-control study. J Neuroinflamm 207;4:4

    89. Buttini M, Lumonta S, Boddeke HW. Peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide induces activation of microglial cell in rat brain. Neurochem Int 1996;29:25–35.

    90. Cunningham C et al. Central and systemic endotoxin challenges exacerbate the local inflammatory responses and increased neuronal death during chronic neurodegeneration. J Neurosci 2005; 25:9275–84.

    91. Vargas DL et al. Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism. Ann Neurol 2005;57:67–81.

    92. Lewine JD et al. Magnetoencephalographic patterns of epileptiform activity in children with regressive autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics 1999; 104:405–15.

    93. Auvin S et al. Inflammation exacerbates seizure-induced injury in the immature brain. Epilepsia 2007;48: 27–34.

    94. Heyes MP et al. Human microglia convert L-tryptophan into neurotoxin quinolinic acid. Biochem J 1996; 320: 595-597.

    95. Bar-Peled O et al. Distribution of glutamate transporter subtypes during human brain development. J Neurochem 1997;69:2571–80.

    96. Toga Aw et al. Mapping brain maturation. Trend Neurosci 2006;29:148– 59.

    97. Gogtay N et al. Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood and adolescence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;101:8174–9.

    99. Maslinska D et al. Morphological forms and localizations of microglial cells in the developing human cerebellum. Folia Neuropathol 1998; 36:145–51.

    100. Schlett K. Glutamate as a modulator of embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Curr Top Med Chem 2006;6:949–60.

    101. Schwab JM et al. IL-6 is differentially expressed in the developing human fetal brain by microglial cells in zones of neuropoesis. In J Dev Neurosci 2001;114:232–41.

    102. Marret S et al. Arrest of neuronal migration by excitatory amino acids in hamster developing brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:15463–8.

    103. Kumuro H, Rakic P. Modulation of neuronal migration by NMDA receptors. Science 1993;260:95–7.

    104. Aarum J et al. Migration and differentiation of neural precursor cells can be directed by microglia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:15983–8.

    105. Ekdahl CT et al. Inflammation is detrimental for neurogenesis in adult brains. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:13632–5.

    106. Chao CC et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha potentates glutamate neurotoxicity in human fetal cell cultures. Dev Neurosci 1994;16:172–9.

    107. Bauman M, Kemper TL. Developmental cerebellar abnormalities: a consistent finding in early infantile autism. Neurology 1986;36(Suppl 1):190.

    108. Courchesne E. Brainstem cerebellar and limbic neuroanatomical abnormalities in autism. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1997;7:269–78.

    109. Taylor DL et al. Stimulation of microglial metabotropic glutamate receptor mGlu2 triggers tumor necrosis factor -induced neurotoxicity in concert with microglial-derived Fas ligand. J Neurosci 2005;25:2952–64.

    110. Rothwell NJ. Cytokines—killers in the brain? J Physiol 1999;514:3–17.

    111. Samland H et al. Profound increase in sensitivity to glutamatergic –but not to cholinergic agonist-induced seizures in transgenic mice with astrocytes production of IL-6. J Neurosci Res 2003;73:176–87.

    112. Bernardino L et al. Modulator effects of interleukin-1β and Tumor necrosis factor-α on AMPA-induced excitotoxicity in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. J Neurosci 2005;25:6734–44.

    113. Burka SL et al. Maternal cytokine levels during pregnancy and adult psychosis. Brain Behav Immunol 2001;15: 411–20.

    114. Brown AS et al. Elevated maternal interleukin-8 levels and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Am J Psychiatry 2004;161:889–95.

    115. Harasawa R, Tomiyama T. Evidence of pestivirus RNA in human virus vaccines. J Clin Microbiol 1994;32:1604–5.

    116. Geier M et al. Endotoxins in commercial vaccines. Appl Environ Microbiol 1978;36:445–9.

    117. Giangaspero M et al. Genotypes of pestivirus RNA detected in live virus vaccines for human use. J Vet Med Sci 2001;63:723–33.

    118. Potts BJ et al. Possible role of pestivirus in microcephaly. Lancet 1987; 1:972–3.

    119. Gherardi RK et al. Macrophagic myofasciitis lesion assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide in muscle. Brain 2001;124:1821–31.

    120. Authier F-J et al. Central nervous system disease in patients with macrophagic myofasciitis. Brain 2001;124:974–83.

    121. Bonnefont-Rousselot D et al. Blood oxidative status in patients with macrophagic myofasciitis. Biomed Pharmacol 2004;58:516–9.

    122. Good PF et al. Selective accumulation of aluminum and iron in the neurofibrilary tangles of Alzheimer’s disease: a laser microprobe (LAMMA) study. Ann Neurol 1992;31:286–92.

    123. Esparza JL et al. Aluminum-induced pro-oxidant effect in rats: protective role of exogenous melatonin. J Pineal Res 2003;35:32–9.

    124. Yokel RA et al. The distribution of aluminum into and out of the brain. J Inorg Biochem 1999;76:127–32.

    125. Campbell A et al. Chronic exposure to aluminum in drinking water increases inflammatory parameters selectively in the brain. J Neuroscience Res 2004;75:565–72.

    126. Bishop NJ et al. Aluminum neurotoxicity in preterm infants receiving intravenous feeding solutions. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1557–61.

    127. Flarend RE, Hem SL, White JL, Elmore D, Suckow MA, Rudy AC, Dandashli EA. In vivo absorption of aluminum-containing vaccine adjuvants using 26Al. Vaccine 1997 Aug.-Sept.;15(12-13):1314–8.

    128. Platt B et al. Aluminum toxicity in the rat brain: histochemical and immunocytochemical evidence. Brain Res Bull 2001;55:257–67

    130. Li XB, Zheng H, Zhang ZR, Li M, Huang ZY, Schluesener HJ, Li YY, Xu SQ. Glia activation induced by peripheral administration of aluminum oxide nanoparticles in rat brains. Nanomedicine. 2009 Dec;5(4):473-9.

    132. Becaria A, Lahiri DK, Bondy SC, Chen D, Hamadeh A, Li H, Taylor R, Campbell A. Aluminum and copper in drinking water enhance inflammatory or oxidative events specifically in the brain. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Jul;176(1- 2):16-23.

    133. Platt B, Fiddler G, Riedel G, Henderson Z. Aluminium toxicity in the rat brain: histochemical and immunocytochemical evidence. Brain Res Bull. 2001 May 15;55(2):257-67.

    134. He BP, Strong MJ. A morphological analysis of the motor neuron degeneration and microglial reaction in acute and chronic in vivo aluminum chloride neurotoxicity. J Chem Neuroanat. 2000 Jan;17(4):207-15.

    135. Tsunoda M, Sharma RP. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in mouse brain after exposure to aluminum in drinking water. Arch Toxicol. 1999 Nov;73(8-9):419-26.

    136. Shin RW. Interaction of aluminum with paired helical filament tau is involved in neurofibrillary pathology if Alzheimer’s disease. Gerontology 1997; 43 (suppl 1): 16-23.

    137. Deloncle R, et al. Aluminum L-glutamate complex in rat brain cortex: in vivo prevention of aluminum deposit by magnesium D-aspartate. Brain Res 2002; 946: 247-252.

    138. Sass JB et al. Aluminum pretreatment impairs the ability of astrocytes to protect neurons from glutamate mediated toxicity. Brain Res 1993; 621: 207-214.

    139. Shaw CA, Petrik MS. Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration. J Inorg Biochem 2009; 103 (11): doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2009.05.019.

    140. Chedid F et al. Aluminum absorption in infancy. J Paediatr Child Health 1991; 27: 164-166.

    141. Ganrot PO. Metabolism and possible health effects of aluminum. Environmental Health Perspectives 1986; 65: 363-441.

    142. Tomljenovic L. Aluminum and Alzheimer’s disease: after a century of controversy, is there a plausible link? In press,

    143. Yokel RA. Brain uptake, retention, and efflux of aluminum and manganese. Environ Health Perspectives 2002; 110: 699-704.

    144. Vahter ME et al. Demethylation of methylmercury in different brain sites of Macaca fascicularis monkeys during long-term subclinical methylmercury exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1995;134:273–84.

    145. Charleston JS et al. Changes in the number of astrocytes and microglia in the thalamus of the monkey Macaca fascicularis following long-term subclinical methylmercury exposure. Neurotoxicology 1996;17:127–38.

    146. Charleston JS et al. Increase in the number of reactive glia in the visual cortex of Macaca fascicularis following subclinical long-term methylmercury exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1994;129:196–206.

    147. Burbacher TM et al. Comparison of blood and brain mercury levels in infant monkeys exposed to methylmercury or vaccines containing thimerosal. Environ Health Perspect 2005;113:1015–21.

    148. Mutkus L et al. Methylmercury alters the in vitro uptake of glutamate and GLAST and GLT-1 transfected mutant CHO-K1 cells. Biol Trace Elem Res 2005;107:231–45.

    150. Kim P, Choi BH. Selective inhibitors of glutamate uptake by mercury in cultured mouse astrocytes. Yonsi Med J 1995;36:299–305.

    151. Kugler P, Schleyer V. Developmental expression of glutamate transporters and glutamate dehydrogenase in astrocytes of the postnatal rat hippocampus. Hippocampus 2004;14:975–85.

    152. Henneberry RC. The role of neuronal energy in neurotoxicity of excitatory amino acids. Neurobiol Aging 1989;10:611–3.

    153. Zeevalk GD et al. Excitotoxicity and oxidative stress during inhibition of energy metabolism. Dev Neurosci 1998;20:444–5.

    154. Yang S-H et al. Testosterone increases neurotoxicity of glutamate in vitro and ischemia-reperfusion injury in an animal model. J Appl Physiol 2002; 92:195–201.

    155. Aschner M et al. Involvement of glutamate and reactive oxygen species in methyl mercury neurotoxicity. Braz J Med Biol Res 2007;40:285–91.

    156. Blaylock RL. Interaction of cytokines, excitotoxins, and reactive nitrogen and oxygen species in autism spectrum disorders. JANA 2003;6:21–35.

    157. Weldon SM et al. Docosahexaenoic acid induces an anti-inflammatory profile in liposaccharide-stimulated THP-1 macrophage mice more effectively than eicosapentaenoid acid. J Nutr Biochem 2007;18:250–8.

    158. Dantzer R. Cytokine-induced sickness behavior: where do we stand? Brain Behav Immunol 2001;15:331–87

    159. McGeer PL, Schwab C, Parent A, Doudet D. Presence of reactive microglia in monkey substantia nigra years after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine exposure. Ann Neurol 2003 Nov.;54:599–604.

    160. Dyatlov VA et al. neonatal lead exposure potentates sickness behavior by Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice. Brain Behav Immun 2002; 16:477–92.

    161. Fattoretti P, Bertoni-Freddari C, Balietti M, et al. The effect of chronic aluminum (111) administration on the nervous system of aged rats: clues to understanding its suggested role in Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimer’s Dis 2003;5:437–44.

    162. Campbell A. Inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and environmental exposures. Ann NY Acad Sci 2004; 1035: 117-32.

    163. Tsunoda M, Sharma RP. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in mouse brain after exposure to aluminum in drinking water. Arch Toxicol 1999;73:419–26.

    164. Perry VH et al. The impact of infection on the progression of neurodegenerative disease. Nature Rev Neuroscience 2003;4:103–12.

    165. ] Juarez BI, Martinez ML, Montante M, et al. Methylmercury increases glutamate extracellular levels in frontal cortex of awake rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2002;24:767–71.

    166. McGeer PL, McGeer EG. Local neuroinflammation and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurovirology 202;8:529–38.

    167. Simonsen L, Reichert TA, Viboud C, et al. Impact of influenza vaccination on seasonal mortality in the U.S. elderly population. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 265–72.

    168. Yu T, Zhao Y, Shi W, Ma R, Yu L. Effects of maternal oral administration of monosodium glutamate at a late stage of pregnancy on developing mouse fetal brain. Brain Res. 1997;747(2):195-206.

    169. Yokel RA, Florence RL. Aluminum bioavailability from the approved food additive leavening agent acidic sodium aluminum phosphate, incorporated into a baked good, is lower than from water. Toxicology. 2006;227(1-2):86- 93.

    170. Koo WW, Kaplan LA, Horn J, Tsang RC, Steichen JJ. Aluminum in parenteral nutrition solution— sources and possible alternatives. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1986;10(6):591-595.

    171. Campbell A. The role of aluminum and copper on neuroinflammation and Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006;10(2-3):165-172.

    172. Savory J, Herman MM, Ghribi O. Mechanisms of aluminum-induced neurodegeneration in animals: Implications for Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006;10(1):135-144.

    173. Mundy WR, Freudenrich TM, Kodavanti PR. Aluminum potentiates glutamate-induced calcium accumulation and iron-induced oxygen free radical formation in primary neuronal cultures. Mol Chem Neuropathol. 1997;32(1- 3):41-57.

    174. Strunecka A, Patocka J, Blaylock RL, Chinoy NJ. Fluoride interactions: from molecules to disease. Curr Signal Trans Ther. 2007;2(3):190-213.

    175. Blaylock RL. Excitotoxicity: a possible central mechanism in fluoride neurotoxicity. Fluoride. 2004;37(4):301-314.

    176. Tseng KY, O’Donnell P. Dopamine-glutamate interactions controlling prefrontal cortical pyramidal cell excitability involve multiple signaling mechanisms. J Neurosci. 2004;24(22):5131-1539.

    177. Jamain S, Betancur C, Quach H, et al. Linkage and association of glutamate receptor 6 gene with autism. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(3):302-310.

    178. Shinohe, A.; Hashimoto, K et al. Increased serum levels of glutamate in adult patients with autism. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 2006, 30, 1472-77.

    179. Moreno-Fuenmayor, H.; Borjas, L.; Arrieta, A.; Valera, V.; Socorro- Candanoza, L. Plasma excitatory amino acids in autism. Invest. Clin., 1996, 37, 113-28.

    180. Novelli, A.; Reilly, J.A.; Lysko, P.G.; Henneberry, R.C. Glutamate becomes neurotoxic via the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor when intracellular energy levels are reduced. Brain Res.,1988, 451, 205-12.

    181. Bar-Peled, O.; Ben-Hur, H.; Biegon, A.; Groner, Y.; Dewhurst, S.; Furuta, A.; Rothstein, J.D. Distribution of glutamate transporter subtypes during human brain development. J. Neurochem., 1997, 69, 2571-80.

    182. Carper, R.A.; Courchesne, E. Inverse correlation between frontal lobe and cerebellum sizes in children with autism. Brain, 2000, 123 ( Pt 4), 836-44.

    183. Cohly, H.H.; Panja, A. Immunological findings in autism. Int. Rev. Neurobiol., 2005, 71, 317-41.

    184. Saliba, E.; Henrot, A. Inflammatory mediators and neonatal brain damage. Biol. Neonate, 2001, 79, 224-7.

    185. Hamberger, A.; Gillberg, C.; Palm, A.; Hagberg, B. Elevated CSF glutamate in Rett syndrome. Neuropediatrics, 1992, 23, 212-3.

    186. Takeuchi, H.; Jin, S.; Wang, J.; Zhang, G.; Kawanokuchi, J.; Kuno, R.; Sonobe, Y.; Mizuno, T.; Suzumura, A. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces neurotoxicity via glutamate release from hemichannels of activated microglia in an autocrine manner. J. Biol. Chem., 2006, 281, 21362-8.

    187. Qiu, Z.; Sweeney, D.D.; Netzeband, J.G.; Gruol, D.L. Chronic interleukin-6 alters NMDA receptor-mediated membrane responses and enhances neurotoxicity in developing CNS neurons. J. Neurosci., 1998, 18, 10445-56.

    188. Burbacher, T.M.; Rodier, P.M.; Weiss, B. Methylmercury developmental neurotoxicity: a comparison of effects in humans and animals. Neurotoxicol. Teratol., 1990, 12, 191-202.

    189. Martinez-Contreras, A.; Huerta, M.; Lopez-Perez, S.; Garcia- Estrada, J.; Luquin, S.; Beas Zarate, C. Astrocytic and microglia cells reactivity induced by neonatal administration of glutamate in cerebral cortex of the adult rats. J. Neurosci. Res., 2002, 67, 200- 10.

    190. Dubovicky, M.; Tokarev, D.; Skultetyova, I.; Jezova, D. Changes of exploratory behaviour and its habituation in rats neonatally treated with monosodium glutamate. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 1997, 56, 565-9.

    191. Sager, P.R.; Aschner, M.; Rodier, P.M. Persistent, differential alterations in developing cerebellar cortex of male and female mice after methylmercury exposure. Brain Res.,1984, 314, 1-11.

    192. Choi, B.H. The effects of methylmercury on the developing brain. Prog. Neurobiol., 1989, 32, 447-70.

    193. Park, S.T.; Lim, K.T.; Chung, Y.T.; Kim, S.U. Methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity in cerebral neuron culture is blocked by antioxidants and NMDA receptor antagonists. Neurotoxicology, 1996, 17, 37-45.

    194. Miyamoto, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Moriguchi, S.; Fukuyama, N.; Eto, K.; Wakamiya, J.; Murao, K.; Arimura, K.; Osame, M. Involvement of enhanced sensitivity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in vulnerability of developing cortical neurons to methylmercury neurotoxicity. Brain Res., 2001, 901, 252-8.

    195. Ming, X.; Stein, T.P.; Brimacombe, M.; Johnson,W.G.; Lambert, G.H.; Wagner, G.C. Increased excretion of a lipid peroxidation biomarker in autism. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids, 2005, 73, 379-84.

    196. Brown, G.C.; Bal-Price, A. Inflammatory neurodegeneration mediated by nitric oxide, glutamate, and mitochondria. Mol. Neurobiol., 2003, 27, 325-55.

    197. Ou, Y.C.; White, C.C.; Krejsa, C.M.; Ponce, R.A.; Kavanagh, T.J.; Faustman, E.M. The role of intracellular glutathione in methylmercury- induced toxicity in embryonic neuronal cells. Neurotoxicology, 1999, 20, 793-804.

    198. Mundy, W.R.; Freudenrich, T.M.; Kodavanti, P.R. Aluminum potentiates glutamate-induced calcium accumulation and iron-induced oxygen free radical formation in primary neuronal cultures. Mol. Chem. Neuropathol., 1997, 32, 41-57.

    199. Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, C.; Montero-Menei, C.N.; Bernard, R.; Couez, D. Vitamin D3 inhibits proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide production by the EOC13 microglial cell line. J. Neurosci. Res., 2003, 71, 575-82.

    200. Nataf, S.; Garcion, E.; Darcy, F.; Chabannes, D.; Muller, J.Y.; Brachet, P. 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3 exerts regional effects in the central nervous system during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 1996, 55, 904-14.

    201. Cantorna, M.T.; Hayes, C.E.; DeLuca, H.F. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 reversibly blocks the progression of relapsing encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1996, 93, 7861-4.

    202. Wang, Y.; Chiang, Y.H.; Su, T.P.; Hayashi, T.; Morales, M.; Hoffer, B.J.; Lin, S.Z. Vitamin D(3) attenuates cortical infarction induced by middle cerebral arterial ligation in rats. Neuropharmacology, 2000, 39, 873-80.

    203. Blaylock, R.L. Phytonutrients and metabolic stimulants as protection against neurodegeneration and excitotoxicity. JAMA, 2000, 2, 30-41.

    204. Blanc EM, Keller JN, Fernandez S, Mattson MP. 4-hydroxynonenal, a lipid peroxidation product, impairs glutamate transport in cortical astrocytes. Glia 1998; 22: 149-60.

    205. Basu A, Krady JK, Levison SW. Interleukin-1: a master regulator of neuroinflammation. J Neurosci Res 2004; 78: 151-6.

    206. Blaylock R. Chronic microglial activation and excitotoxicity secondary to excessive immune stimulation: possible factors in Gulf War Syndrome and autism. J Am Phys Surg 2004; 9: 46-51.
    207. Blaylock RL, Strunecka A. Immune-glutamatergic dysfunction as a central mechanism of the autism spectrum disorders. Curr Med Chem 2009; 16: 157-70.

    208. Shi L, Tu N, Patterson PH. Maternal influenza infection is likely to alter fetal brain development indirectly: the virus is not detected in the fetus. Int J Dev Neurosci 2005; 23: 299-305.

    209. Smith SE, Li J, Garbett K, Mirnics K, Patterson PH. Maternal immune activation alters fetal brain development through interleukin-6. J Neurosci 2007; 27: 10695-702.

    210. Gao HM, Liu B, Zhang W, Hong JS. Critical role of microglial NADPH oxidase-derived free radicals in the in vitro MPTP model of Parkinson's disease. FASEB J 2003; 17: 1954-6.

    211. Patterson PH. Maternal infection: window on neuroimmune interactions in fetal brain development and mental illness. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2002; 12: 115-8.

    212. Zuckerman L, Rehavi M, Nachman R, Weiner I. Immune activation during pregnancy in rats leads to a postpubertal emergence of disrupted latent inhibition, dopaminergic hyperfunction, and altered limbic morphology in the offspring: a novel neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 2003; 28: 1778-89.

    213. Meyer U, Nyffeler M, Engler A, et al. The time of prenatal immune challenge determines the specificity of inflammation-mediated brain and behavioral pathology. J Neurosci 2006; 26: 4752-62.

    214. Stys P, Li S. Glutamate-induced white matter injury: excitotoxicity without synapses. The Neuroscientists 2000; 6: 230-3.

    215. Melke J, Goubran Botros H, Chaste P, et al. Abnormal melatonin synthesis in autism spectrum disorders. Mol Psychiatry 2008; 13: 90- 8.

    216. Kanwar JR, Kanwar RK, Krissansen GW. Simultaneous neuroprotection and blockade of inflammation reverses autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Brain 2004; 127: 1313-31.

    217. Samland H, Huitron-Resendiz S, Masliah E, et al. Profound increase in sensitivity to glutamatergic- but not cholinergic agonist-induced seizures in transgenic mice with astrocyte production of IL-6. J Neurosci Res 2003; 73: 176-87.

    218. Tartaglia LA, Weber RF, Figari IS, et al. The two different receptors for tumor necrosis factor mediate distinct cellular responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991; 88: 9292-6.

    219. Leonoudakis D, Zhao P, Beattie EC. Rapid tumor necrosis factor alpha- induced exocytosis of glutamate receptor 2-lacking AMPA receptors to extrasynaptic plasma membrane potentiates excitotoxicity. J Neurosci 2008; 28: 2119-30.

    220. Zou JY, Crews FT. TNF alpha potentiates glutamate neurotoxicity by inhibiting glutamate uptake in organotypic brain slice cultures: neuroprotection by NF kappa B inhibition. Brain Res 2005; 1034: 11-24.

    221. Dantzer R, Kelley KW. Twenty years of research on cytokine- induced sickness behavior. Brain Behav Immun 2007; 21: 153-60.

    222. Allen JW, Mutkus LA, Aschner M. Mercuric chloride, but not methylmercury, inhibits glutamine synthetase activity in primary cultures of cortical astrocytes. Brain Res 2001; 891: 148-57.

    223. Schinder AF, Olson EC, Spitzer NC, Montal M. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a primary event in glutamate neurotoxicity. J Neurosci 1996; 16: 6125-33.

    224. Ashwood P, Van de Water J. A review of autism and the immune response. Clin Dev Immunol 2004; 11: 165-74.

    225. Blaylock R. The danger of excessive vaccination during brain development: the case for a link to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Medical Veritas 2008; 5: 1727-41.

  • Bart Classen

  • 1.Classen, J.B., Mergner, W.J., and Costa, M.: ATP hydrolysis by ischemic mitochondria. Journal of Cellular Physiology 141:53-59, 1989.

    2.Mergner, W.J., Classen, J.B., Costa, M., and Leventhal, H.H.: Plasma membrane and mitochondrial changes in cell injury. In Cell Death, Mechanism of Acute Cell Injury and Cell Death, Mergner, W.J., Jones, R.T., and Trump, B.F., editors. Fields and Woods Phil., 1990.

    3.Classen, J.B., and Shevach, E.M.: Evidence that cyclosporine treatment during pregnancy predisposes offspring to develop autoantibodies. Transplantation 51:1052-1057, 1991.

    4.Classen, J.B., and Shevach, E.M.: Post-thymectomy organ-specific autoimmunity: enhancement by cyclosporine A and inhibition by IL-2 . Autoimmunity 15: 55-59,1993.

    5.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: Vaccines modulate type I diabetes. Diabetologia 39: 500- 501, 1996.

    6.Classen, J.B.: Diabetes epidemic follows hepatitis B immunization program

    New Zealand Medical Journal 109: 195, 1996.

    7.Classen, J.B.: The timing of immunization affects the development of diabetes in rodents. Autoimmunity 24: 137-145, 1996.

    8.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: Timing of immunization alters risk of diabetes. ICAAC Abstract G023: 1996.

    9.Classen, J.B.: The diabetes epidemic and the hepatitis B vaccine.

    New Zealand Medical Journal 109: 366, 1996.

    10.Classen, D.C., and Classen, J.B.: The timing of pediatric immunization and the risk of insulin- dependent diabetes. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice 6: 449-454, 1997.

    11.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: Incidence of IDDM in Germany is not higher than predicted. Diabetes Care 20(11): 1799-1800, 1997.

    12.Classen, J.B. : Trials without placebo controls in pre-IDDM: is there an advantage?
    Diabetes Metab Rev. 13(4): 317, 1997.

    13.Classen, J.B.: Cyclosporine induce autoimmunity in newborns prevented by early immunization. Autoimmunity 27(3): 135-139, 1998.

    14.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: Public should be told that vaccines may have adverse effects. British Medical Journal 318:193, 1999.

    15.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: Hemophilus vaccine and increased IDDM, causal relationship likely. British Medical Journal; eBMJ, May 7, 1999.

    16.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: Vaccines, autoimmune diabetes (IDDM), and accountability. British Medical Journal 318:1487, 1999.

    17.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: Immunization in the first month of life may explain decline in incidence of IDDM in the Netherlands. Autoimmunity 31:43-45, 1999.

    18.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: Vertically transmitted enteroviruses and the benefits of neonatal immunization. Diabetes Care 22 (10): 1760, 1999.

    19.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: Association between type 1 diabetes and Hib vaccine, causal relation likely. British Medical Journal 319:1133, 1999.

    20.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: Immunisation and type 1 diabetes mellitus: is there a link? Drug Safety 21(5):423-5, 1999.

    21.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: Hemophilus vaccine associated with increased risk of diabetes, causality likely. Diabetes Care 23: 872, 2000.

    22.Paolo Pozzilli, Natalia Visalli, Guisy Coppolino, David Carey Classen, John B. Classen and the IMDIAB Group: Hepatitis B Vaccine Associated with an Increased Risk of Type 1 Diabetes in Italy. Abstract 272, 60th Scientific Session, American Diabetes Association Meeting, San Antonio, Texas: June 13, 2000.

    23.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: Vaccines and the risk of insulin- dependent diabetes (IDDM): potential mechanisms of action. Medical Hypotheses 57:532-538, 2001.

    24.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: The safety of military immunization and the risk of insulin dependent diabetes. Clinical Practice of Alternative Medicine 2:247-252, 2001.

    25.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: Clustering of cases of insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) occurring three years after Hemophilus influenza B (HiB) immunization support causal relationship between immunization and IDDM. Autoimmunity 35:247-253, 2002.

    26.Classen, J.B., and Classen, D.C.: Clustering of cases of IDDM occurring 2-4 years after vaccination is consistent with clustering after infections and progression to IDDM in autoantibody positive individuals. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 16 (4):495-507, 2003.

    27.Classen, J.B.: Pertussis infections, vaccines and type 1 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine. 21(4):397-8, 2004.

    28.Classen, J.B.: Enhanced funding of pharmacoepidemiology through

    patenting the disclosure of adverse event information. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 15: 390–393, 2006.

    29.Classen, J.B.: Clustering of Cases of IDDM 2 to 4 Years after Hepatitis B Immunization is Consistent with Clustering after Infections and Progression to IDDM in

    Autoantibody Positive Individuals. The Open Pediatric Medicine Journal 2:1-6, 2008.

    30.Classen, J.B.: Risk of Vaccine Induced Diabetes in Children with a Family History of Type 1 Diabetes. The Open Pediatric Medicine Journal 2: 7-10, 2008.

    31.Classen, J.B.: Discontinuation of BCG Vaccination Precedes Significant Drop in Type 2 Diabetes in Japanese Children. Role of Inflammation and Cortisol Activity as a Cause of Type 2 Diabetes The Open Endocrinology Journal 2: 1-4, 2008.

    32.Classen, J.B.: Type 1 Diabetes Versus Type 2 Diabetes/Metabolic Syndrome, Opposite Extremes of an Immune Spectrum Disorder Induced by Vaccines The Open Endocrinology Journal 2:9-15, 2008.

    33.Classen, J.B.: Evidence childhood epidemics of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are opposite extremes of an immune spectrum disorder induced by immune stimulants. Role of race and associated cortisol activity as a major determining factor of the type of diabetes. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews 3: 67-69, 2009.

    V. Issued Patents

    1.Classen, J.B.: U.S. patent 5,723,283. Method and composition for an early vaccine to protect against both infectious diseases and chronic immune mediated disorders or their sequela.

    2.Classen, J.B.: U.S. patent 5,728,385. Method and composition for an early vaccine to protect against both infectious diseases and chronic immune mediated disorders or their sequela.

    3.Classen, J.B.: U.S. patent 6,420,139. Method and composition for an early vaccine to protect against both infectious diseases and chronic immune mediated disorders or their sequela.

    4.Classen, J.B.: U.S. patent 6,683,739. Method and composition for an early vaccine to protect against both infectious diseases and chronic immune mediated disorders or their sequela.

    5.Classen, J.B.: U.S. patent 7,008,790. Method and composition for an early vaccine to protect against both infectious diseases and chronic immune mediated disorders or their sequela.

    6.Classen, J.B.: U.S. patent 6,219,674 . System for creating and managing proprietary product data.

    7.Classen, J.B.: U.S. patent 6,420,139. Method and composition for an early vaccine to protect against both infectious diseases and chronic immune mediated disorders or their sequela.

    VI. Presentations Pertaining to Vaccines and Autoimmunity

    1. New Enterprises Associates, Baltimore, MD: October 25th, 1994

    Presented data to a large venture capital corporation.

    2. Venture Fund of Washington, Washington, DC: October 31st, 1994

    Presented data to a venture capital corporation focusing on health care.

    3. MedImmune, Gaithersburg, MD: November 2nd, 1994

    Presented data to a vaccine development company.

    4. Univax Biologicals, Rockville, MD: December 16th, 1994

    Presented data to a vaccine development company.

    5. US Public Health Service: January 9th, 1995

    Presented data at a 2 hour seminar devoted to analyzing Classen Immunotherapies' data.

    6. FDA: January 11th, 1995

    Presented data at a 2 hour seminar devoted to analyzing Classen Immunotherapies' data.

    7. University of Pittsburgh: January 17th, 1995

    Presented data to university scientists.

    8. US Public Health Service: January 30th, 1995

    Presented data at a full day seminar devoted to analyzing Classen Immunotherapies' data. Over 20 senior government scientists attended the meeting.

    9. National Vaccine Information Center: August 25th, 1995

    Presented data to executives of the organization.

    10. Georgetown University: October 16th, 1995

    Presented data to university scientists.

    11. FDA, Vaccine and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee: October 26th, 1995

    Presented data to a panel of consultants advising the FDA.

    12. FDA, Vaccine and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee: October 27th, 1995

    Presented data to a panel of consultants advising the FDA.

    13. Institute of Medicine: November 6th, 1995

    Presented data at a large full day public seminar.

    14. Institute of Medicine: November 17th, 1995

    Presented data in detail to this organization.

    15. University of Maryland School of Medicine: November 29th, 1995

    Presented data to university scientists.

    16. Maryland Department of Public Health: March 15th, 1995

    Presented data to state officials involved in managing diabetes and communicable diseases.

    17. FDA, Vaccine and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee: July 11th, 1996

    Presented data to a panel of consultants advising the FDA.

    18. Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV) and National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) Subcommittee on Vaccine Safety: September 10, 1996. Presented data to joint committees at meeting.

    19. 36th ICAAC meeting, New Orleans: September 16, 1996

    Picked by the American Society of Microbiology as one of the most interesting abstracts presented at the meeting.

    20. The First International Public Conference on Vaccination, Alexandria, VA : September 14, 1997

    21. U. Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine: March 12, 1998 Presented data on vaccines and IDDM to professors and residents.

    22. Johns Hopkins University, Institute for Vaccine Safety: March 20, 1998

    Safety Workshop on Childhood Immunization and Diabetes. Presented data at a full day workshop devoted to analyzing my research which was attended by experts from government, industry, and academia from around the country.

    23. National Institutes of Health: May 14-15,1998

    Workshop: An Evaluation of Possible Role of Vaccines and Infectious Diseases in Insulin Dependent (Type 1) Diabetes Mellitus. Presented data at this 2 day workshop devoted to discussing my research.

    24. Vaccination and Child Health Symposium, Manchester, New Hampshire: October 17, 1998

    Presented data on the risks and benefits of immunization.

    25. Expert witness to Congress of the United States, House of Representatives: May 18, 1999. Presented data at hearing entitled " Hepatitis B Vaccine: Helping or Hurting the Public."

    26. Great Lakes College of Clinical Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland: September 25, 1999

    Presented data on the risks and benefits of immunization.

    27. Expert witness to Congress of the United States, House of Representatives: October 12, 1999. Presented data at hearing entitled " Defense Vaccines: Force Protection or False Security."

    28. FDA, Vaccine and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee: November 5, 1999.

    Presented data proving vaccines cause diabetes to a panel of consultants advising the FDA.

    29. 60th Scientific Session, Diabetes Association Meeting, San Antonio, Texas: June 13, 2000. Collaborative data presented by P. Pozzilli. Hepatitis B Vaccine Associated with an Increased Risk of Type 1 Diabetes in Italy.

    30. The Second International Public Conference on Vaccination, Alexandria, VA : September 10, 2000

    Presented proof vaccines cause insulin dependent diabetes.

    31. FDA, Vaccine and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee: January 31, 2001

    Presented data to a panel of consultants advising the FDA.

    32. American College for Advancement in Medicine Spring Conference, Nashville: May 13, 2001

    Presented data on vaccines and autoimmune diseases.

    33. Melee's Vaccine Litigation Conference, Philadelphia, PA: March 19, 2002

    Presented data on vaccine induced diabetes.

    34. House of Delegates, State of Maryland, Annapolis, MD: March 16, 2004

    Invited by a House Delegate to provided testimony on vaccine adverse events at a meeting pertaining to consideration of a House Bill to allow conscientious objection to immunization.

  • Shiv Chopra

  • 1. Shiv Chopra: rBGH: The Insider Story: International Conference on The Future of Food, Climate Change, GMOs and Food Security, New Delhi, India, 2008.

    2. Shiv Chopra: CORRUPT TO THE CORE: Memoirs of a Health Canada Whistleblower; KOS Publishing, Inc. Toronto, Canada, 2009.

    3. Shiv Chopra: CORRUMPUS JUSQU’ À LA MOELLE: Les memoirs d’un scientific de Santé Canada qui a choisi de sonner de l’arme; Les Édition le mieux être, 2009.

    4. Shiv Chopra: CORRUPT TO THE CORE (Indian edition): All India Pingalwara Society, Amritsar, India, 2010.

    5. Shiv Chopra: Five Pillars of Food Safety: 40th Annual Conference National Farmers Union, 2010:

    6. Shiv Chopra: The Last Bastion of Corruption: 1. Food Safety; 2. Vaccines:

    7. Vaccines: Prevention or Curse?

    8. A special Interview on Vaccines with Dr. Shiv Chopra

    9. The Toxic Five (Five Pillars of Food Safety)

  • Vicky Debold

  • No resources available at this time

  • Richard Deth

  • 1. Waly, M., Banerjee, R., Choi, S.W., Mason, J., Benzecry, J., Power-Charnitsky, V.A, Deth, R.C. “PI3-kinase regulates methionine synthase: Activation by IGF-1 or dopamine and inhibition by heavy metals and thimerosal” Molecular Psychiatry 9: 358-370 (2004).

    2. Deth, R., Muratore, C., Benzecry, J., Power-Charnitsky, V., and Waly, M. "How environmental and genetic factors combine to cause autism: A Redox/Methylation Hypothesis." Neurotoxicology 29: 190-201 (2007).

    3. Deth, R.C.: The Redox/Methylation Hypothesis of Autism: A Molecular Mechanism for Heavy Metal-induced Neurotoxicity. In Autism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Immune Abnormalities, A. Chauhan, V. Chauhan, W.T. Brown Eds., Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, Boca Raton (2009).

    4. Mutter, J., Curth, A., Naumann, J., Deth, R. and Walach, H: “Does Inorganic Mercury Play a Role in Alzheimer’s Disease? A Systematic Review and an Integrated Molecular Mechanism” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease Aug 30 (2010) [Epub ahead of print]

  • Chris Exley

    No resources available at this time

  • Marc Girard

    1. Girard M. A first step in the trivialization of iatrogenic violence.

    2. Girard M. More queries about H1N1 scandal, Br Med J, 2010, 341: 268

    3. Girard M. When evidence-based medicine (EBM) fuels confusion: multiple sclerosis after hepatitis B vaccine as a case in point. Medical Veritas 2007; 4 :1436-1451

    4. Girard M. World Health Organization vaccine recommendations: scientific flaws, or criminal misconduct? Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons 2006; 11: 22-3

    5. Girard M. Scientific integrity: “Truth versus method”. Alliance for Human Research and Protection 2006

    6. Girard M. Autoimmune hazards of hepatitis B vaccine. Autoimmunity Reviews 2005; 4/2: 96-100

    7. Girard M. Episiotomy : a form of genital mutilation. Lancet 1999 ; 354 : 595-596.

    8. Girard M: Oral provocation : limitations. Sem Dermatol 1989;8:192-195.

    9. Girard M. Technical expertise as an ethical form. Towards an ethics of distance. J Med Ethics 1988;14:25-30.

    10. Girard M. Conclusiveness of rechallenge in the interpretation of adverse drug reactions. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1987;23:73-79.

    11. Girard M. Data quality in post-marketing surveillance. Adv Drug React Ac Pois Rev 1986;2:87-95.

    12. Girard M. Testing the methods of assessment for adverse drug reactions. Adv Drug React Ac Pois Rev 1984;4:237-244.

  • Romain Gherardi

  • 1: Gherardi RK, Coquet M, Chérin P, Authier FJ, Laforêt P, Bélec L, Figarella-Branger D, Mussini JM, Pellissier JF, Fardeau M. Macrophagic myofasciitis: an emerging entity. Groupe d'Etudes et Recherche sur les Maladies Musculaires Acquises et Dysimmunitaires (GERMMAD) de l'Association Française contre les Myopathies (AFM). Lancet. 1998 Aug 1;352(9125):347-52.

    2: Gherardi RK, Coquet M, Cherin P, Belec L, Moretto P, Dreyfus PA, Pellissier JF, Chariot P, Authier FJ. Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide in muscle. Brain. 2001 Sep;124(Pt 9):1821-31.

    3: Authier FJ, Cherin P, Creange A, Bonnotte B, Ferrer X, Abdelmoumni A, Ranoux D, Pelletier J, Figarella-Branger D, Granel B, Maisonobe T, Coquet M, Degos JD, Gherardi RK. Central nervous system disease in patients with macrophagic myofasciitis. Brain. 2001 May;124(Pt 5):974-83

    4: Gherardi RK, Authier FJ. Aluminum inclusion macrophagic myofasciitis: a recently identified condition. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2003 Nov;23(4):699-712.

    5: Gherardi RK. [Lessons from macrophagic myofasciitis: towards definition of a vaccine adjuvant-related syndrome]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2003 Feb;159(2):162-4.

    6: Authier FJ, Sauvat S, Champey J, Drogou I, Coquet M, Gherardi RK. Chronic fatigue syndrome in patients with macrophagic myofasciitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Feb;48(2):569-70.

    7: Bassez G, Authier FJ, Lechapt-Zalcman E, Delfau-Larue MH, Plonquet A, Coquet M, Illa I, Gherardi RK. Inflammatory myopathy with abundant macrophages (IMAM): a condition sharing similarities with cytophagic histiocytic panniculitis and distinct from macrophagic myofasciitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003 May;62(5):464-74.

    8: Authier FJ, Sauvat S, Christov C, Chariot P, Raisbeck G, Poron MF, Yiou F, Gherardi R. AlOH3-adjuvanted vaccine-induced macrophagic myofasciitis in rats is influenced by the genetic background. Neuromuscul Disord. 2006 May;16(5):347-52.

    9: Exley C, Swarbrick L, Gherardi RK, Authier FJ. A role for the body burden of aluminium in vaccine-associated macrophagic myofasciitis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Feb;72(2):135-9.

    10: Couette M, Boisse MF, Maison P, Brugieres P, Cesaro P, Chevalier X, Gherardi RK, Bachoud-Levi AC, Authier FJ. Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction. J Inorg Biochem. 2009 Nov;103(11):1571-8.

  • Beatrice Golomb

  • No resources available at this time

  • Barbara Loe Fisher

  • 1. Fisher BL, Coulter HL. DPT: A Shot in the Dark. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich: 1985.

    2. Fisher BL. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting & Data Collection. Statement presented to Institute of Medicine Vaccine Safety Forum. November 6, 1995.

    3. Fisher BL. Vaccine Adverse Event Detection Methodologies. Statement presented to Institute of Medicine Vaccine Safety Forum. November 6, 1995.

    4. Fisher BL. Vaccine Adverse Event Response Methodologies. Statement presented to Institute of Medicine Vaccine Safety Forum. November 6, 1995.

    5. Fisher BL. The Consumer's Guide to Childhood Vaccines. National Vaccine Information Center: 1997.

    6. Fisher BL. Vaccine Safety Research Needs: Perspective from Parents. Statement presented to Institute of Medicine Vaccine Safety Forum. April 1, 1996.

    7. Fisher BL. The Moral Right to Conscientious, Philosophical or Personal Belief Exemption to Vaccination. Invited presentation to the National Vaccine Advisory Committee. May 2, 1997.

    8. Fisher BL. The Hepatitis B Vaccine: Adverse Events. Invited testimony for the Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and House Resources Subcommittee of the House Government Reform Committee. May 18, 1999.

    9. Fisher BL. Shots in the Dark. The Next City Magazine 1999.

    Fisher BL. Compensating Vaccine Injuries: Are Reforms Needed? Testimony for the House Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources, US Government Reform Committee. September 28, 1999.

    10. Fisher BL. Vaccine Safety Concerns of Parents. Invited presentation to Institute of Medicine Immunization Safety Review Committee. July 11, 2001.

    11. Fisher BL. Smallpox and Forced Vaccination: What Every American Should Know. The Vaccine Reaction (National Vaccine Information Center) Winter 2002.

    12. Fisher BL. The SV40 Virus: Has Tainted Polio Vaccine Caused An Increase in Cancer? Invited testimony for Subcommittee on Human Rights & Wellness, U.S. House Government Reform Committee, U.S. House of Representatives. September 10, 2003.

    13. Fisher BL. Flu Vaccine: Missing the Mark. The Vaccine Reaction (National Vaccine Information Center). Spring 2004.

    14. Fisher BL. National Immunization Program (NIP) Procedures and Data Sharing. Program. Invited presentation to Institute of Medicine Committee on the Review of the NIP’s Research Procedure and Data Sharing Program. July 23, 2004.

    15. Fisher BL. In the wake of vaccines. Mothering Magazine September-October 2004.

    16. Fisher BL. Vaccine Safety Research Priorities: Engaging the Public. Invited presentation to the Vaccine Safety Working Group, National Vaccine Advisory Committee. April 11, 2008.

    17. Fisher BL. Vaccines, Autism & Chronic Inflammation: The New Epidemic. National Vaccine Information Center 2008.

    18. Fisher BL. The Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: A Failed Experiment in Tort Reform? Invited presentation to the Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines. November 18, 2008.

  • Meryl Nass

  • 1. Nass, M. Letter. Missing in Action: WHO’s Risk-Benefit Analysis. BMJ Rapid Responses, June 14, 2010.

    2. Nass M. Anthrax Vaccine: Caveat Emptor (Let the Buyer Beware). Current Treatment Options in Infectious Disease, 2003; 5: 361-4.

    3. Nass M and Nicholson G. Anthrax Vaccine: Historical Review and Current Controversies. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, 2002; 12: 277-86.

    4. Nicholson GL, Berns P, Nasrall MY, Haier J, Nicholson NL and Nass M. Gulf War Illnesses: Chemical, Biological and Radiological Exposures Resulting in Chronic Fatiguing Illnesses Can Be Identified and Treated. J Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 2003; 11:135-154.

    5. Nass M. Anthrax Vaccine Not Safe and Effective (letter). Emergency Medicine News, July 2002; 24: 44.

    6. Nass M. The Anthrax Vaccine Program, and an Analysis of the CDC’s Recommendations for Vaccine Use. American Journal of Public Health, 2002; 92: 715-21.

    7. Nicholson GL, Nass M, Nicholson NL. The Anthrax Vaccine Controversy—Questions about its Efficacy, Safety and Strategy. Medical Sentinel, 2000; 5: 97-101.

    8. Nicholson GL, Nass M, Nicholson NL. Anthrax Vaccine: Controversy Over Safety and Efficacy. Antimicrobics and Infectious Disease Newsletter, 2000; 18:1-6.

    9. Nass M. Should the Military Suspend Its Anthrax Vaccine Program? Physicians Weekly, June 19, 2000; 17:1.

    10. Nass M. The Anthrax Dilemma: Safety Issues Revisited. Medicine and Global Survival, 1999; 6: 54.

    11. Nass M. Biological Warfare and Vaccines: Anthrax. Applied Science and Analysis Newsletter, April 15, 1999: 10-11, continued in later issues.

    12. Nass M. Anthrax vaccine: Model of a response to the biological warfare threat. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 1999; 13: 187-208.

    13. Sidel V, Nass M, Ensign T. The Anthrax Dilemma. Medicine and Global Survival, 1998; 5: 97-104.

    14. Nass M. Will anthrax vaccine help prevent biological warfare? Defense Systems International, Fall 1998. 35-39. (reprint of number 21).

    15. Nass M. Biological Warfare (letter). The Lancet, 1998; 352: 491-2.

  • Ray Obomsawin

  • 1. Creighton C.; Vaccination; Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th Edition, Volume XXIV; 1888.

    2. Wallace A.; Vaccination a Delusion: Proved by the Official Evidence in the Reports of the Royal Commission; Swan Sonnenschen & Co.; London, UK; 1898.

    3. McCormick W.J.; Vitamin C in the Prophylaxis and Therapy of Infectious Diseases; Archives of Pediatrics; Vol. 68, No. 1, January 1951; pp. 1-9.

    4. Wilson. G., The Hazards of Immunization; Athlone Press; London, UK; 1967; pp. 4-6 and 282-289.

    5. Kalokerinos, A. and Dettman G.; Second Thoughts on Disease: A Controversy and Bechamp Revisited; Joint Paper presented to the International Academy of Preventive Medicine, Phoenix, Arizona; August 27, 1977.

    6. Kalokerinos, A.; Every Second Child; Keats Publishing, New Canaan, CT, USA; 1981.

    7. McKeown T.; The Road to Health; World Health Forum; World Health Organization; Geneva, Switzerland; Vol. 10, 1989; pp. 410-411.

    8. Coulter H.L.: Vaccination, Social Violence, and Criminality: The Medical Assault on the American Brain; North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, CA, USA; 1990; pp. 155-159.

    9. Ward, B.J., Vaccine adverse events in the new millennium: is there reason for concern?; Bulletin of the World Health Organization; Vol. 78, No. 2, 2000; pp. 205-207.

    10. Gallagher C., and Goodman, M., Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 1-9 years, Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry; Vol. 90, No. 5, September-October 2008; pp. 997-1008.

  • Lawrence Palevsky

  • No resourses available at this time
  • Christopher Shaw

  • No resourses available at this time
  • Yehuda Shoenfeld

  • 1. 625. Cohen AD, Shoenfeld Y. Vaccine-induced Autoimmunity. J Autoimmunity 9: 699-703, 1996.

    2. Shoenfeld Y, Aron-Maor A. Vaccination and autoimmunity - 'Vaccinosis': a dangerous liaison? J Autoimmunity , 14 1-10, 2000.

    3. Aharon-Maor A, Shoenfeld Y. The good, the bad and the ugly of vaccination. IMAJ 2: 225-227, 2000.

    4. Shoenfeld Y, Aharon-Maor A, Sherer Y. Vaccination as an additional player in the mosaic of autoimmunity. Clin Exp Rheumatol 18: 181-184, 2000.

    5. 906. Shoenfeld Y. Vaccination and arthritis revisited.

    6. http/, 11.9.2000, pp: 1-6.

    8. Arom-Maor A, Shoenfeld Y. Vaccination and systemic lupus erythematosus: the bidirectional dilemmas. Lupus 10: 237-240, 2001

    9. 939. Shoenfeld Y, Aron-Maor A, Tanal A, Ehrenfeld M. BCG and autoimmunity: another two-edged sword. JAI 16: 235-240, 2001.

    10. 1042. Borchers AT, Keen CL, Shoenfeld Y, Silva J Jr, Gershwin ME. Vaccines, viruses and voodoo. J Investing Allergol Clin Immunol 12:155-68, 2002.

    11. 1047. Aron-Maor A, Shoenfeld Y. BCG immunization and the 'Trojan Horse' phenomenon. Clin Rheum 22: 6-7, 2003.

    12. 1107. Asherson RA, Shoenfeld Y, Jacobs P, Bosman C. An unusually complicated case of primary sjogren's syndrome: development of transient "Lupus-type" autoantibodies following silicone implant rejection. J Rheumatol 31: 196-7, 2004.

    13. 1137. Tishler M, Shoenfeld Y. Vaccination may be associated with autoimmune diseases. IMAJ 6: 430-432, 2004.

    14. 1162. Khamaisi M, Shoenfeld Y, Orbach H. Guillain-Barre syndrome following hepatitis B vaccination. Clin & Exp Rheumatol 22: 767-770, 2004.

    15. 1169. Selmi C, Battezzati PM, Tishler M, Shoenfeld Y, Gershwin ME. Vaccines in the 21st century: the genetic response and the innocent bystander. Autoimmune Rev 4: 79-81, 2005.

    16. 1188. Berkun Y, Mimouni D, Shoenfeld Y. Pemphigus following hepatitis B vaccination – coincidence or causality? Autoimmunity 38: 117-119, 2005.

    17. 1190. Molina V, Shoenfeld Y. Infection, vaccines and other environmental triggers of autoimmunity. Autoimmunity 38: 235-245, 2005.

    18. 1258. Tishler M, Shoenfeld Y. BCG immunotherapy – from pathophysiology to clinical practice. Expert Opinion Drug Saf. 5: 225-229, 2006.

    19. 1295. Tishler M, Shoenfeld Y. Vaccines and autoimmunity. In: The Autoimmune diseases 4th Ed. Noel R. Rose & Ian R. Mackay (Editors). Elsevier Publ. Amstersan – The Netherlands, pp: 309 – 316

    20. 1307. Ablin JN, Shoenfeld Y, Buskila D. Fibromyalgia, infection and vaccination: two more parts in the etiological puzzle. J of Autoimmunity: 145-152, 2006.

    21. 1329. Orbach H, Shoenfeld Y. Vaccination infection and autoimmunity: Myth and reality VIAMR a. 2005-10-26-28, Beau-Rivage Palace Hotel, Lausanne, Switzerland. Autoimmun Rev 6; 261–266, 2007.

    22. 1368. Appel S, Chapman J, Shoenfeld Y. Infection and vaccination in chronic fatigue syndrome: Myth or reality? Autoimmunity 40: 48 – 53, 2007.

    23. 1396. Altman A, Szyper-Kravitz M, Shoenfeld Y. HBV vaccine and dermatomyositis: is there an association? Rheumatol Int 2007.

    24. 1440. de Carvalho J F, Shoenfeld Y. Status epilepticus and lymphocytic pneumonitis following hepatitis B vaccination. European J of Int Med 19: 383 – 385, 2008.

    25. 1455. Agmon-Levin N, Shoenfeld Y. Chronic fatigue syndrome with autoantibodies – the result of an augmented adjuvant effect of hepatitis-B vaccine and silicone implant. Autoimmun Rev. 8: 52 – 55, 2008.

    26. 1464. de Carvalho JF, Rodrigues RM, Shoenfeld Y. Systemic polyarteritis nodosa following hepatitis B vaccination. European J of Int Med 19: 575-578, 2008.

    27. 1484. Agmon-Levin N, Kivity S, Shoenfeld Y. Influenza Vaccine and Autoimmunity. IMAJ 11: 39-41, 2009.

    28. 1534. Zafrir Y, Agmon-Levin N, Shoenfeld Y. Post-Influenza vaccination vasculitides a possible new entitiy. J Clin Rheumatol 15: 269-270, 2009.

    29. 1536. Agmon-Levin N, Paz Z, Israeli E, Shoenfeld Y. Vaccinaes and autoimmunity. Nat Rev Rheumatol 5: 648-652, 2009.

    30. 1537. Shoenfeld Y. Infections, vaccines and autoimmunity. Editorial. Lupus 18: 1127 – 1128, 2009.

    31. 1544. Agmon-Levin N, Zafrir Y, Paz Z, Shilton T, Zandman-Goddard G, Shoenfeld Y. Ten cases of systemic lupus erythematosus related to hepatitis B vaccine. Lupus 18: 1192 – 1197, 2009.

    32. 1545. Agmon-Levin N, Kivity S, Szyper-Kravitz M, Shoenfeld Y. Transverse myelitis and vaccines: a multi-analysis. Lupus 18: 1198 – 1204, 2009.

    33. 1546. Israeli E, Agmon-Levin N, Blank M, Shoenfeld Y. Adjuvants and autoimmunity. Lupus 18: 1217 – 1225, 2009.

    34. 1549. Carvalho JF, Oereura RMR, Shoenfeld Y. Vaccination, atherosclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 18: 1209 – 1212, 2009.

  • Lucija Tomljenovic

  • No resourses available at this time
  • Micheal Vonn

  • No resourses available at this time
  • Andy Wakefield

  • 1. Wakefield AJ, Murch SH, Anthony A, Linnell J, Casson DM, Malik M, et al. Ileal LNH, non-specific colitis and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet 1997; 351: 637-641.

    2. Wakefield AJ, Anthony A, Murch SH, Thomson M, Montgomery SM, Davies S, et al. Enterocolitis in children with developmental disorder. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2000; 95:2285-2295.

    3. Furlano RI, Anthony A, Day R, Brown A, McGavery L, Thomson MA, Davies SE, Berelowitz M, Forbes A, Wakefield AJ, Walker-Smith JA, Murch SH. Colonic CD8 and gamma delta T cell infiltration with epithelial damage in children with autism. Journal of Pediatrics 2001;138:366-372

    4. Torrente F, Ashwood P, Day R, Machado N, Furlano RI, Anthony A, Davies SE, Wakefield AJ, Thomson MA, Walker-Smith JA, Murch SH. Enteropathy with T cell infiltration and epithelial IgG deposition in autism. Molecular Psychiatry 2002;7:375-382.

    5. Uhlmann V., Martin CM., Shiels O., Pilkington L., Silva I., Lillalea A. Murch SH., Wakefield AJ., O’Leary JJ. Potential viral pathogenic mechanism for new variant inflammatory bowel disease. Molecular Pathology. 2002;55:1-6.

    6. Kawashima H., Takayuki M., Kashiwagi Y., Takekuma K., Hoshika A., Wakefield AJ. Detection and sequencing of measles virus from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and autism. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2000;45:723-729.

    7. Wakefield AJ and Montgomery SM. Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine: through a glass, darkly. Adverse Drug Reactions & Toxicological Reviews 2000;19:265-283.

    8. Wakefield AJ and Montgomery SM. Autism, viral infection and measles mumps rubella vaccination. Israeli Medical Association Journal 1999;1:183-187.

    9. Wakefield AJ, Puleston J., Montgomery SM., Anthony A., O’Leary JJ., Murch SH. Review article: the concept of entero-colonic encephalopathy, autism and opioid receptor ligands. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2002; 16: 663-674.

    10. Shiels O., Smyth P., Martin C., O’Leary JJ. Development of an allelic discrimination type assay to differentiate between strain origins of measles virus detected in intestinal tissue of children with ileocolonic lymphonodular hyperplasia and concomitant developmental disorder. Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Journal of Pathology. 2002 .A20.